Labor Toolkit

Alternative Port Management Structures and Ownership Models

This module, the third of eight comprising the World Bank’s Port Reform Toolkit, lays out an array of alternative port management and control structures, and explains for each structure the respective roles most likely to be filled by the public and private sectors. It provides a framework for all of the modules by defining the characteristics of specific management structures and the tasks and responsibilities to be performed by private and public sector entities. In particular, it identifies the problems facing port managers when adapting their organizations to the challenges of today’s global market place. The solutions and “tools” suggested in this module are adapted as much as possible to the port manager’s specific situations. Examples have been included illustrating approaches that have been successful, as well as those that have been less than fully successful. This module also notes how ports have adjusted organizational and administrative arrangements due to the strategic shifts and competitive pressures affecting the maritime sector. These developments are described in more detail in Module 2.


Alternative Port Management Structures and Ownership Models

Objectives and Overview

Evolution of Port Institutional Frameworks

Port Functions, Services, and Administration Models

Interaction with Port Cities

Role of a Port Authority

Role of Port Operators

Roles of a Transport Ministry

Port Functions

Port Administration Models

Service Ports

Tool Ports

Landlord Ports

Fully Privatized Ports

Globalization of Terminal Operations

Port Management and Competition

Port Sector Regulator

Value-Added Services

Port Finance Overview

Financing Port Projects

Financing Ports: From a Lender’s Point of View

Public-Private Partnerships

Port Reform Modalities

Strategies and Reform Options

Modernization of Port Administration



Corporatization of Terminals

Corporatization of a Port Authority


Reform Tools

Contracting Out and Use of Management Contracts

Concession Arrangements

Leasehold Agreements

Concession Agreements

Master Concession

BOT Arrangements

Comprehensive Privatization

Ports as Transport Chain Facilitators

Marine Services and Port Reform

Harbormaster’s Function


Tugboat Operations

Mooring Services

Vessel Traffic Services and Aids to Navigation

Other Marine Services


Box 1: “White Elephants” in Port Development

Box 2: Institutional Formats of Greenfield Ports

Box 3: Examples of Port Economic Multiplier Effects

Box 4: Value-Added Development Efforts in the Port of Rotterdam

Box 5: Strengths and Weaknesses of Port Management Models

Box 6: Basic Port Management Models

Box 7: Top 10 Carriers as of June 2006

Box 8: Global Terminal Operators 2005 Throughput League Table

Box 9: Portfolio of the Largest Terminal Operators as of June 2005

Box 10: Elements Influencing Interport Competition

Box 11: Overview of Value-Added Services in Ports

Box 12: Potential for VAL and VAF

Box 13: European Rules on Port Subsidies

Box 14: Categories of Port Assets

Box 15: Multiple Terminal Ownership in Sri Lanka

Box 16: Reasons for Pursuing Port Reform

Box 17: Creation of Commercialized Port Authorities in China

Box 18: The Port of Aqaba: Corporatization and Privatization

Box 19: The Experience of the Hanseatic Landlord Ports

Box 20: Spectrum of Port Reform Tools

Box 21: Comparison of Lease Systems

Box 22: BOT Schemes and Port Development

Box 23: San Martin-Rosario Waterway Concession

Box 24a: Impetus behind Full Privatization in the United Kingdom

Box 24b: Impetus behind Full Privatization...(Continued)

Box 25: Singapore Creates PSA Corporation

Box 26: The Creation of a National Pilotage Monopoly in the Netherlands

Box 27: Prevailing Service Providers under Different Port Management Models


How To Use The Toolkit


Framework for Port Reform

The Evolution of Ports in a Competitive World

Alternative Port Management Structures and Ownership Models

Objectives and Overview

Evolution of Port Institutional Frameworks

Port Functions, Services, and Administration Models

Port Finance Overview

Port Reform Modalities

Reform Tools

Marine Services and Port Reform

Legal Tools for Port Reform

Financial Implications of Port Reform

Port Regulation:
Overseeing the Economic Public Interest in Ports

Labor Reform and Related Social Issues

Implementing Port Reform


Download Modules as PDF Documents




Additional Materials

Web Sites